We assume that EU regulations will be oriented towards continuing the decarbonization process resulting from the arrangements related to the reform of the EU ETS system, the long-term strategy until 2050 and the Paris Agreement. The European Union’s regulatory activities are part of global trends in the energy sector, which include:
- counteracting climate change, in particular by reducing greenhouse gas emissions,
- development of renewable energy technologies, including new fuels for transport,
- development of energy storage,
- digitization of the economy, including the development of a market associated with smart technologies,
- reduction in the share of conventional fuels,
- development of distributed prosumer energy,
- improved energy efficiency.
In the medium to long term, the European Union’s climate and energy policy will focus on achieving the climate neutrality target by 2050 at the EU level. Moreover, work will continue on the integration of power systems within the community, the establishment of a common energy market and the diversification of sources of electricity generation and supply.
As part of the Clean Energy for All Europeans package of regulations, the EU has undertaken to achieve certain targets, including in respect of reducing CO2 emissions, increasing the share of renewable sources and increasing energy efficiency by 2030. Member States are currently at the stage of implementing the package.
In December 2019, the European Commission published the European Green Deal – a roadmap for EU countries to achieve climate neutrality. The pursuit of the target is associated with the need to adopt a new legal framework and create additional mechanisms (including financial ones) to enable transformation. It should be pointed out, however, that Poland was the only EU country to reserve during the EU summit in December 2019 its inability to attain the neutrality target by 2050 in the current circumstances. Relevant EU institutions are scheduled to return to the dialogue with Poland in June 2020. According to its communication, the European Commission plans to include the following elements in the European Green Deal:
- adopting regulations directly related to the pursuit of the climate neutrality target – known as the Climate Law,
- introduction of a funded mechanism to support just transition,
- analysis of the greenhouse gas emission reduction target by 2030,
- revision of the Energy Taxation Directive,
- introduction of the CBAM (Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism) for selected sectors,
- assessment of National Energy and Climate Plans.
In the medium and long term, national regulations will largely result from EU regulations. Accordingly, the introduction of mechanisms aimed at the evolution of the economy and the energy sector toward decarbonization and the construction of the internal energy market in the EU may be expected.